Transfert de matières, transplantation et fabrication du vivant

International conference

Organisateurs : Ludovic Jullien, Marie Le Clainche – Piel, Perig Pitrou, Catherine Rémy

Les 21 et 22 Novembre 2014

Grand Amphithéâtre, Université Paris Descartes, 12 Rue de l’École de Médecine, 75006 Paris

Living beings constitute singular organizations of matter. At the level of the individual, they possess a certain autonomy which allows them to repair themselves, to regenerate themselves. However, at the level of populations, these systems are also endowed with plasticity, as illustrated by the process of evolution, which can be interpreted as DIY (F. Jacob, 1981; Le jeu des possibles. Essai sur la diversité du vivant. Fayard, Paris): new species are constantly appearing as a result of random assemblages recovering and integrating foreign elements (M. W. Kirschner, J. C. Gerhart, 2005; The Plausibility of Life, Resolving Darwin's Dilemma, Yale University Press).

Assemblies, do-it-yourself projects are thus processes inherent to the existence of living beings. Science and medical techniques have developed in line with this configuration. Organ transplantation is one of the most paradigmatic examples. As a consequence of organ medicine and the establishment of a causal relationship between a deficient living organism and a disease, surgeons have been removing pieces or foreign matter since the 19th century with a view to restoring the associated functions (T. Schlich, 2010). Organ transplantation is regularly described as one of the great miracles of modern science. If this perception of transplants as miraculous appears justified, it nevertheless has the negative effect of masking the various problems raised by this medical technique for the beings removed, transplanted, and those around them (L. Sharp, 2006; M. Lock, 2001). This focus on the technical performance of organ transplantation also has a second unfortunate consequence: it overlooks the link between this process and the DIY inherent in the living world and conceals a whole set of material transfer practices, originating from humans but also from non-humans, which for several centuries have contributed to the care but also to the manufacture of existing ones. It is from this observation that the idea of this conference was born.

In a way, it will be a question of putting organ transplantation back "in its place", that is to say alongside a set of heterogeneous practices of transfers and tinkering with materials between living people. The list of "intruders" is thus considerably enriched. From bacteria or stem cells, to blood or animal organs, or even unusual human parts such as the face, the objective of this conference is to draw up a panorama of material transfers that are carried out in research or medical contexts in order to identify their diversity and socio-technical complexity (M. Akrich, M. Callon, B. Latour, 2006). Beyond the demonstration, the aim is also comparative: what are the similarities and differences that appear between these various innovations and their actual implementation? What about the identity of the human beings who receive these transfers? What is their impact on the theories of the components of the person? How do the chemical, physiological, organic, psychological and social levels interact? Through this game of scales and materials, the aim is to better understand the impact that the transfer and transplantation of materials have had and continue to have on the fabrication of living beings.

21 Novembre 2014

9h Accueil des participant.e.s

9h20 Introduction par les organisateurs

ATELIER 1 – Jeux de matières et d’échelle : des transferts insolites

Présidente de séance : Catherine Rémy

9h30 Conférence introductive d’Alain Prochiantz (Collège de France, Paris) – Individuation permanente

10h15 Jérôme Larghero (Université Paris Diderot, Paris) – Médecine régénératrice : exemple de la thérapie cellulaire cardiaque

11h15 Philippe Seksik (UPMC, Paris) – Transplantation de microbiote fécal (TMF)

11h45 Discussion Andreas Mayer (CNRS)

12h15 Buffet-Déjeuner

ATELIER 2 – Artefact, Animal, Humain : transferts et frontières d’humanité

Président de séance : Ludovic Jullien

13h30 Conférence introductive de Christian Baudelot (ENS, Paris) – Transplantation rénale avec donneur vivant : une mutualisation plus qu’un don

14h15 Yosuke Shimazono (Osaka University, Osaka) – Kidneys as contested commodities: An anthropological study on kidney donation in the Philippines

15h15 Catherine Rémy (CNRS, Paris) – La xénogreffe et la question de l’hybridité homme-animal

15h45 Marie Le Clainche-Piel (EHESS, Paris) – S’engager dans la réparation de son visage : de l’enjeu de singularité à celui du retour aux collectifs

16h15 Bernard Devauchelle (Service de Chirurgie Maxillo-Faciale, CHU d’Amiens, Institut Faire Face) et Sophie Cremades (Psychiatrie de liaison, CHU d’Amiens, Institut Faire Face) – Défiguration – Refiguration – Identité

17h00 Discussion Marie Gaille (Université Paris Diderot, Paris)

22 Novembre 2014

9h Accueil des participant.e.s

ATELIER 3 – Transculturel autour du transfert de matières Président de séance : Perig Pitrou

9h30 Visite du musée d’Histoire de la Médecine

10h30 Conférence introductive de Maylis de Kerangal – La fiction comme organisme et écosystème. Remarques sur la fabrication du vivant

11h15 Florence Paterson (Mines ParisTech, Paris) – Faire circuler des organes : regard sur deux modalités de régulation des organes en France

11h45 Discussion

12h15 Buffet-Déjeuner

13h30 Charlotte Ikels (Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland) – Organ Transplantation in China : The Roles of Culture and Politics

14h00 Lawrence Cohen (Berkeley University, Berkeley) – About organ transplantation in India

14h30 Discussion Julie Noack (ENS, Lyon)

15h00 Conférence de clôture de Simone Bateman (CNRS, Paris) – L’Essai sur le don de Marcel Mauss est-il toujours d’actualité? Transfert de matières humaines pour la recherche : le cas particulier des tissus résiduels